Master of Writing English

Before you write an English sentence you have to get organized.

The first stage of organization is choosing the single or complete thought that you are stating, describing, explaining or asking. The thought should include 1. a subject, and 2. an action or state of being.

Lets describe the different available subjects to be used in our example sentence.

You can use yourself as the subject of your sentence. You can use your brothers or sisters or any or all of your family members as the subject of your sentence. You can use neighbors, friends, people you know, even people you do not know as the subject of your sentence. In fact you can use anybody (living or dead) as the subject of your sentence.

Maybe you want to use your pet dog or goldfish as the subject of your sentence. You can use any (living or dead) insect, bird, mammal, reptile, fish, bacteria or any creature as the subject of your sentence.

Maybe you want to use your new toy, Sentence Master Game, computer software, hybrid car, house, office or space pen as the subject of your sentence. You can use any naturally constructed or man made items or objects as the subject of your sentence.

Maybe you want to use another person’s new car, laptop computer, motorcycle or funny tie as the subject of your sentence. You can use any other person’s naturally constructed or man made items or objects as the subject of your sentence.

Maybe you want to use your pet dog’s possessions as the subject of your sentence. You can use any (living or dead) insect, bird, mammal, reptile, fish, bacteria or any creature’s possessions or objects as the subject of your sentence.

You may want to use your actions as your subject of your sentence. You can use swimming or running as subjects for your sentence. Almost all visible actions can be sentence subjects.

You may want to use another person’s actions as the subject of your sentence. You can use their swimming or running as subjects for your sentence. Almost all visible actions performed by another can be sentence subjects.

You may want to use a natural process or an animal’s or machines’ actions as the subject of your sentence. Almost all visible actions performed by mother nature, all creatures and machines can be used as sentence subjects.

You may want to use invisible actions as your subject of your sentence. These invisible actions are also described as intangible actions. You can use your thinking or dreaming or wondering as intangible actions as subject of your sentence.

You may want to use another person’s invisible or intangible actions as the subject of your sentence. You can use another person’s daydreaming or fantasizing as intangible actions as subject of your sentence.

You may use your state of being as the subject of your sentence. The state of being is also considered an intangible item. You can use your feeling happy or sad as the intangible subject of your sentence.

You may also use another person’s state of being as the subject of your sentence. You can use their feeling happy or sad as the intangible subject of your sentence.

You may want to use an un-real item or action or state of being as the subject or your sentence. You can use imaginary people, animals, objects, planets, actions, thoughts, and other intangibles as the subject of your sentence. In fact you can use imaginary characteristics of your imaginary friend’s pet “axelyrty” as the subject of your sentence.

You may want to use a small amount of imagination and only use imaginary thoughts or feelings or actions to a real person, animal, object or machine.

As a writer of English sentences you have an extremely wide choice of available subjects. you can use English sentences to write about anything both real and unreal.

The second stage of organization is choosing 2. an action or state of being.

Let’s describe the different available actions or states of being that can be used in our sentences.

We can use visible, invisible or intangible actions in our sentence. We can use real or unreal actions in our sentence.

We can use visible, invisible or intangible states of being in our sentence. We can use real or unreal states of being in our sentence.

The very simple aspect about writing English sentences is that if you can think about “it” then “it” can probably be used as an action or state of being and even a subject in an English sentence.

The next “How to write Sentences” will discuss sentence types and sentence constructions.

We know from the “How to Write English Sentences Introduction” the first stage of organization is choosing the single or complete thought that you are stating, describing, explaining or asking. The thought should include 1. a subject, and 2. an action or state of being.

The following are examples of starting with a basic thought and experimenting by adding the different English parts of speech, phrases and clauses.

How to Write an English Sentence Examples

For our example of English sentence writing we will start with a basic thought.

Ross teaches.

This is a simple subject and verb sentence and states the core of my thought. This sentence can be added to, modified, and enhanced using additional parts of speech, phrases and clauses.

We can change the subject by exchanging the noun “Ross” for a pronoun “He” and keep the basic thought intact.

He teaches.

We can provide a more accurate expression of my thought by adding an article, adjective, demonstrative, possessive or a combination to further explain details about the subject.

The taller Ross teaches.
The blonde Ross teaches.

We can provide a more accurate expression of my thought by showing the relationship with time by changing the verb tense.

Ross will teach. – add a modal to create a future tense
Ross taught. – use the past participle to create the simple past

We can provide a more accurate expression of my thought by adding an adverb to explain further details about the verb.

He teaches well.
He teaches thoroughly.

We can provide a more accurate expression of my thought by adding an object to receive the action generated by the subject.

Ross teaches students.
Ross teaches adults.

We can provide a more accurate expression of my thought by adding adjectives to describe the object and provide additional details about the object.

Ross teaches international students.
Ross teaches international business professionals.

We can provide a more accurate expression of my thought by adding a phrase with additional details.

Ross teaches in the college.
Ross teaches in Canada and the USA.

We can add further details or indicate external relationships and provide a more accurate expression of my thought by adding a clause.

Ross was teaching when the rainstorm began.
Ross was teaching when the hockey playoff’s started.

We can provide a more accurate expression of my thought by adding phrases to describe the object.

Ross teaches international students from Asia and Europe.
Ross teaches international business professionals from large multi-national corporations.

We can modify the sentence to provide a more accurate expression of my thought by adding clauses to enhance the object.

Ross teaches international students who booked classes directly from his website.

The process of writing an English sentence is much easier when the writer starts with a basic thought and systematically experiments with all of the English parts of speech, phrases and clauses to see how to accurately express the complete thought.

One advanced English sentence writing skill is understanding when one thought is really two thoughts that should be expressed separately. The following is an example:

Ross teaches international students from Asia and Europe that booked classes directly from his website in Canada.(Awkward)

In Canada Ross teaches international students from Asia and Europe. Ross’s students booked classes directly from his website.(better as two sentences)

In the next How to Write Sentences Lessons we will discuss:

What type of sentence best matches your thought: declarative, imperative, interrogative or exclamatory.

Which of the six basic English sentence construction formats best suits your sentence.

1. No Verb Complement
2. Direct Object Verb Complement
3. Indirect and Direct Object Verb Complements
4. Predicate Nominative Verb Complement
5. Predicate Adjective Verb Complement

6. Direct Object and Objective Complement

Regular Sentence Master game playing will help you choose the correct English words and how to use them accurately when constructing English sentences. You can also order the complete Sentence Master Grammar Reference CD for additional explanations and examples.

We know from “How to Write English Sentences 1” that before you write an English sentence some decisions have to be made.

What is the single or complete thought that you are stating, describing, explaining or asking. Now we have to decide which of six basic English sentence construction formats best suits your sentence.

Lets review the six basic English sentence construction formats in greater detail.

Writers can construct every type of English sentence using these six patterns.

1. No Verb Complement

The simplest structure is one without a verb complement. In traditional grammar, all verb complements are either nouns or adjectives.

Example: Ross teaches.

2. Direct Object Verb Complement

The defining characteristic is the presence of a direct object.

Example: Ross teaches students.

3. Indirect and Direct Object Verb Complements

Both indirect and direct objects are present. Indirect objects are placed immediately after the verb. Direct objects that are noun phrases follow the indirect object.

Example: Ross taught [(me) (a lesson)].

4. Predicate Nominative Verb Complement

The predicate nominative verb complement is a noun or a pronoun that redefines, renames, or classifies the subject of the sentence. The verb in a predicate nominative sentence pattern is always a linking verb, such as be, seem or become.

Examples: Ross became a teacher.

5. Predicate Adjective Verb Complement

The predicate adjective is an adjective that modifies the subject of the sentence. The verb is always a linking verb, such as be, seem, smell, look, taste or become.

Examples: Ross became famous.

6. Direct Object and Objective Complement

The verb complements are a direct object and an objective complement. An objective complement is a noun or an adjective that occurs after the direct object and describes the direct object.

Example: Ross’s English class made [(me) (bilingual)].

In the next How to write English Sentences we will discuss the four English sentence types: declarative, imperative, interrogative and exclamatory.

Additional Examples of English Sentences with Simple Configurations

Simple subject and predicate
Example: Ross taught.

Understood subject (for commands, directives)
Example: Study!

Interjection
Examples: Ouch that hurt!

Compound predicate
The student listened and wrote.

Compound subject and predicate
Ross and Shirley worked hard and then rested.

Three subjects
Koreans, Japanese and Canadians studied in the school.

Direct object
Shirley sent the letter.

Compound direct objects
Ross sent cards and letters.

Three direct objects
Ross sent posters, cards, and letters.

Compound predicate with direct objects
Ross wrote a poem and read it.

Compound predicate with one direct object
Shirley proofreads and edits her letters.

Indirect object
Ross gave the students homework.

Compound indirect objects
The teacher gave Jessica and Matthew quizzes.

Predicate noun
Ross is a teacher.

Objective Complement
Ross wiped his blackboard clean.

Direct address
Harold, tell the class now.

Adjective
Athletic moves excite the crowd.

Compound adjectives
The young and playful puppy played with the students.

Predicate adjective
The lesson was accurate.

Compound predicate adjectives
The lesson was accurate and detailed.

Comparative Adjective
Ross is considerably older than his brother.

Adverb
Shirley works quickly.

Adverbs modifying other adverbs
My dog wags its tail quite often.

Compound adverbs
The teacher waited patiently and quietly for the answer.

Passive Voice
The education article was read.

The process of writing an English sentence is much easier when the writer starts with a basic thought and systematically experiments with all of the English parts of speech, phrases and clauses to see how to accurately express the complete thought. We know from “How to Write English Sentences 1 and 2” that before you write an English sentence some decisions have to be made.

1. What is the single or complete thought that you are stating, describing, explaining or asking.

2. Which of six basic English sentence construction formats best suits your sentence.

3. What type of sentence best matches your thought: declarative, imperative, interrogative or exclamatory.

Lets review the four English sentence types in greater detail.

The four kinds of sentences declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory.

1. A declarative sentence makes a statement. A declarative sentence states an idea. A declarative sentence usually ends in a period.

Example: The hockey finals will be broadcast tomorrow.

2. An imperative sentence asks, requests, orders or commands someone to do something.

Example: Pass the puck to the open man.

3. An interrogative sentence usually asks a question. There are four types, yes or no interrogatives, wh-interrogatives, alternative interrogatives and tag questions.

How’, ‘when’, ‘where’ and ‘why’ are interrogative adverbs used to inquire about manner, time, place and purpose. ‘Who’, ‘whose’, ‘whom’, ‘what’ and ‘which’ are interrogative pronouns used to inquire about the subject or object of a verb.

English writers use a question mark [ ? ] at the end of a direct question. When brief questions are more or less follow-up questions to the main question, each of the little questions can begin with a lowercase letter and end with a question mark. The question mark may be inserted into parentheses, to show that something is uncertain.

Simple Interrogative Sentence Examples:
How often do you study English?
When do you study English?
Where do you study English?
Why do you study English with a tutor?
Who is the best Business English teacher?
What is the best English grammar book?
Which English school has the best teachers?

4. An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. An exclamation is an emotional utterance that is spoken. An exclamation can be a word, phrase, or complete English sentence spoken with great emotion or intensity. An exclamation is usually written as an interjection.

Exclamation points are usually out of place in formal writing. Use an exclamation point [ ! ] at the end of an emphatic declaration, interjection, or command. Declarative, imperative, or interrogative sentences can be made into exclamatory sentences by punctuating them with an exclamation point.

Simple Exclamatory Sentence Examples:
Stop that man!
Go to the end!
Do it now!

The process of writing an English sentence is much easier when the writer starts with a basic thought and systematically experiments with all of the sentence types and English parts of speech, phrases and clauses to see how to accurately express the complete thought. When writing English sentences the writer may have a simple subject or a combination of subject and an object. To describe any actions or states of being the writer must use a verb or verbs to show who or what initiated, experienced or received the action or state of being.

The selection of verb and verb tense provides the writer with a wide variety of choices when expressing the relationships between the subjects, objects and external factors such as time.

The following is a simple set of examples of verb tenses and sentences.

SIMPLE PRESENT
1. [verb]
I study English everyday.

SIMPLE PAST
1. [verb + ed]
Two years ago, I studied English in Canada.

SIMPLE FUTURE
1. [am/is/are] + [going to] + [verb]
I am going to study English next year in Canada.
2. [will] + [verb]
I will study English tomorrow.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
1. [am / is / are] + [verb + ing]
I am studying English now.

PAST CONTINUOUS
1. [was /were] + [verb + ing]
I was studying English when you called this morning.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS
1. [will be] + [verb + ing] 2. [am /is /are] + [going to be] + [verb + ing]
I will be studying English when you arrive today.
We are going to be studying English next year in Canada.

PRESENT PERFECT
1. [has /have] + [past participle]
I have studied English in several Canadian cities.

PAST PERFECT
1. [had] + [past participle]
I had studied English before I moved to Canada.

FUTURE PERFECT
1. [will have] + [past participle]
I will have studied all the verb tenses by the end of today.
2. [am/is/are] + [going to have] + [past participle]
We are going to have studied all the chapters by five o’clock.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
1. [has/have] + [been] + [verb + ing]
I have been studying English for two years.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
1. [had been] + [verb + ing]
I had been studying English for two years before I moved to Canada.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
1. [will have been] + [verb + ing]
I will have been studying English for one hour by the time you arrive.
2. [am/is/are] + [going to have been] + [verb + ing]
We are going to have been studying for three hours.

A noun is a part of speech used to name a person, animal, place, thing, or abstract concept.

A noun is a member of a syntactic class that includes words which refer to people, places, things, ideas, or concepts. Nouns may act as any of the following: subjects of the verb, direct or indirect objects of the verb.

In general the following are the types of nouns.

Proper nouns are capitalised and include: name of a specific person, place, or thing, days of the week, months of the year, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, holy texts and religious followers.

A common noun refers in general to a person, place, or thing.

A concrete noun names everything that you can perceive through the physical senses of touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell.

An abstract noun names anything that you can not perceive through your five physical senses. Abstract nouns name or refer to non-concrete entities, ideas or concepts. Abstract nouns: love, optimism, truth, freedom, belief and hope.

A countable noun or count noun names anything or anyone that you can count and is a noun with both a singular and a plural form.

A non-countable noun or mass noun refers to something that you could or would not usually count. A non-count noun refers to an indivisible whole. They only have singular forms.

A collective noun names a group of things, animals or persons. It takes a singular verb when you want to refer to a collective noun as one whole unit and it takes a plural verb when you want to refer to the members which make up the collective.

A possessive noun indicates ownership or possession.

How to Write an English Sentence with Nouns Examples

A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.

Example
The teacher gave the man a present.
(noun is subject, direct object, and indirect object)

A subject complement is a complement that is used to complete a description of the subject or subject of a clause. A subject complement follows a linking verb; it is normally an adjective or a noun that renames or defines the subject in some way.

Example
The teacher is pleased.

An appositive is a noun or pronoun usually with modifiers that is set beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it.

Example:
My son, the teacher, will be visiting us.
(noun is subject, appositive)

An object complement is an noun, pronoun, or adjective which follows a direct object and renames it or tells what the direct object has become. It is most often used with verbs of creating or nominating such as make, name, elect, paint or call.

Example:
We started to call our teacher, coach.
(pronoun is subject, noun is object and object complement)

Phrases tend to be larger than individual words and are usually considered as expansions of an individual word. Phrases are smaller than clauses or sentences as they do not have subjects and predicates or subjects and verbs.

Phrase classifications are generally based on the headword, phrase function or construction of the phrase. We refer to the central element in a phrase as the head of the phrase. If the head is a noun then the phrase is usually called a noun phrase.

There is some overlap when describing phrases based on the either headword or function. The headword can usually stand alone as a one-word phrase. The headword is the only part that cannot be omitted from a phrase.

Phrases can modify or be incorporated into other phrases or a string of phrases. Phrases can be effectively used to show complex relationships between objects or abstracts.

NOUN PHRASES

For most writing purposes noun phrases can be treated as single grammatical units performing the work of a noun in the sentence. Noun phrases may serve as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, complements or objects of prepositions.

A noun phrase is a phrase whose head is a noun or a pronoun accompanied by modifiers. Noun headword pre-modifiers include determiners, articles, demonstratives, numerals, possessives and quantifiers. The noun headword post-modifiers can be complements, other phrases or relative clauses.

Noun Phrases Examples:

The hockey coach is happy. (Noun phrase as subject.)

My best friend’s father drove us. (Noun phrase as possessive.)

We saw a very small dog. (Noun phrase as a direct object)

Shirley gave the tall girl the file. (Noun phrase as an indirect object)

resources by http://www.eslincanada.com/englishlesson1.html

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